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The Dividing Line

Understanding and Applying Biblical Separation
Chapter 10


1The most useful work on the history of Pentecostalism is Stanley M. Burgess and Gary B. McGee, ed., Dictionary of the Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, Regency Reference Library, 1988). Also helpful are Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979); Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Movement in the United States (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1971); and Donald W. Dayton, Theological Roots of Pentecostalism (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow, 1987). We should note that the history of Pentecostalism presented in this book follows the traditional outline of events. However, as the writers cited here and elsewhere note, the actual history is much more complex. Even these authors disagree with each other on many points, such as the relative influence of Keswick and Methodist holiness teaching upon Pentecostalism. Some of the disputed points about Pentecostal history are examined in Joe Creech, "Visions of Glory: The Place of the Azusa Street Revival in Pentecostal History," Church History 65 (1996): 405-24. (back to article)

2For a critical but extremely helpful survey of tongues-speaking in history, see Victor Budgen, The Charismatics and the Word of God (Welwyn, England: Evangelical Press, 1985), pp. 113-99. (back to article)

3H. V. Synan, "Kansas City Conference," in Dictionary of the Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, p. 515. (back to article)

4Ray Hughes of the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee) cites the question of speaking in tongues as a major distinction between Pentecostals and Charismatics. He says that Pentecostals believe that tongues is the "normative experience" for the baptism of the Holy Spirit whereas Charismatics do not. Ray H. Hughes, "A Traditional Pentecostal Looks at the New Pentecostals," Christianity Today, 7 June 1974, pp. 7-8. Kenneth Kantzer notes the results of a Christianity Today/Gallup survey that fewer than a fifth of professing Charismatics claim to have spoken in tongues. Kantzer notes also that Pentecostal leaders admit that only half to two-thirds of the members of their denominations say they have spoken in tongues, but it is still a much higher percentage among Pentecostals. Kenneth Kantzer, "The Charismatics Among Us," Christianity Today, 22 February 1980, pp. 25-26. (back to article)

5Hughes, p. 10. (back to article)

6See C. Peter Wagner, The Third Wave of the Holy Spirit (Ann Arbor: Vine Books, 1988). For a critique of the third wave, see John MacArthur, Charismatic Chaos (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1992), pp. 128-51. (back to article)

7The name of the movement derives from the fact that it originated in a Vineyard congregation in Toronto. For a sympathetic introduction to the Toronto blessing, along with some mild criticisms, see B. J. Oropeza, A Time to Laugh: The Holy Laughter Phenomenon Examined (Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1995). For a pointed and thorough critique, see Eric Wright, Strange Fire? Assessing the Vineyard Movement and the Toronto Blessing (Welwyn, England: Evangelical Press), 1996. For an interesting, narrowly focused critique of the laughing revival, see John Hannah, "Jonathan Edwards, the Toronto Blessing, and the Spiritual Gifts: Are the Extraordinary Ones Actually the Ordinary Ones?" Trinity Journal 17 (1996): 167-89. (back to article)

8D. B. Barrett, "Statistics, Global," in Dictionary of the Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, p. 811. (back to article)

9Anderson, pp. 5-6; Virginia Brereton, Training God's Army: The American Bible School, 1880-1940 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990), pp. 166-69. (back to article)

10A good overview of Fundamentalist-Pentecostal relations, from a Pentecostal point of view, is H. V. Synan, "Fundamentalism," in Dictionary of the Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, pp. 324-27. (back to article)

11Perhaps the best, and certainly the most readable, critique of Pentecostalism and the Charismatic movement is MacArthur' Charismatic Chaos. Also very helpful is Budgen's Charismatics and the Word of God. Critiques from an avowedly Fundamentalist position are Ernest Pickering, Charismatic Confusion (Schaumburg, Ill.: Regular Baptist Press, 1980); and two works by O. Talmadge Spence, Charismatism, Awakening or Apostasy? (Greenville, S.C.: Bob Jones University Press, 1978), and Pentecostalism: Purity or Peril? (Greenville, S.C.: Unusual Publications, 1989). Spence's critiques are particularly interesting in that they are written from a Pentecostal perspective. (back to article)

12For a defense of the idea of the cessation of these spiritual gifts, see Benjamin B. Warfield, Counterfeit Miracles (1918; reprint, London: Banner of Truth, 1972). (back to article)

13John Wesley, A Plain Account of Christian Perfection (Louisville: Pentecostal Publishing, n.d.), pp. 46-47. (back to article)

14Bob Jones, Cornbread and Caviar: Reminiscences and Reflections (Greenville, S.C.: Bob Jones University Press, 1985), pp. 181-82. For further discussion of Jones's distinction between old-line Pentecostalism and the Charismatic movement, see Daniel L. Turner, Standing Without Apology: The History of Bob Jones University (Greenville, S.C.: Bob Jones University Press, 1997), pp. 242-43. (back to article)

15Edward O’Connor, Pentecost in the Modern World (Notre Dame, Ind.: Ave Maria Press, Charismatic Renewal Books, 1972), p. 33, cited in James Richard Monk, "Bases of Neo-Pentecostal Ecumenicity" (Th.M. thesis, Dallas Theological Seminary, 1980), p. 55; italics in original. Monk argues that a shared spiritual experience is the basis of unity in Charismatic and Pentecostal circles; see especially his discussion on pp. 54-56. (back to article)

16Hughes, p. 8. (back to article)

17Jack Hayford, "No One Like Jesus," Charisma and Christian Life, December 1991, pp. 53-62. The quotation comes from p. 54. (back to article)

18W. Dennis Pederson, "A Time to Mend," Christian Life, April 1984, pp. 42, 48. (back to article)

19Krister Stendahl., The School of St. Matthew (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1968). (back to article)

20Krister Stendahl, Paul Among the Jews (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1976), p. 127. (back to article)

21See e.g., Krister Stendahl, "The Charismatic Movement and the New Testament," in What the Spirit is Saying to the Churches, ed. Theodore Runyon, ed. (New York: Hawthorn, 1975), pp. 19-28. Stendahl gave this address at the Minister's Week at Emory University in 1974, where he appeared on the program with Oral Roberts and David duPlessis, among others. (back to article)

22See Hughes, pp. 9-10, for a summary of how Catholics resolve differences between Pentecostal and Roman Catholic theology. (back to article)


The Dividing Line: Understanding and Applying Biblical Separation. By Mark Sidwell. ©1998. BJU Press. Reproduction prohibited. This work is available for purchase at the Bob Jones University Campus Store (phone: 1-800-252-1927; web address:

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